I am sure this will be a very merry Christmas and happy New Year for those 38 deserving individuals. Congratulations and happy holidays!
This Christmas Eve, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn decided on more executive clemency petitions by granting 38 and denying an additional 129. All 38 clemency petitions came in the form of pardons with authorization to expunge them from their criminal record. Since taking office, Governor Quinn has now acted on 2,815 clemency petitions, granting 1,032.
I am sure this will be a very merry Christmas and happy New Year for those 38 deserving individuals. Congratulations and happy holidays!
This week, President Obama granted clemency to 21 individuals, including 8 commutations. It is good to see the President pick up the pace on clemency decisions, as he has been among the lowest in US history for clemency actions.
The commutations were for those sentenced under the harsh federal guidelines which, at that time, mandated a life sentence for selling crack cocaine. Among those was an Illinois man sentenced as a teenager almost 20 years ago, despite it being his first offense.
Congratulations to those that received the clemency actions! And thank you to President Obama for making this a truly special holiday season for these individuals!
Every fall, one high-profile pardon case predictably dominates the news cycle. Every news broadcast will show footage of the pardoning and every newspaper will feature a blurb about it. I’m speaking, of course, of the annual pardon of a Thanksgiving turkey by the president.
Later this month, President Obama will hold a press conference outside the White House and present the turkey that he’s decided to pardon from being executed. It’s meant as a light moment during the holidays, a wholesome White House publicity event akin to the Easter Egg roll. The President usually cracks a few jokes and the press chuckles. (It provided some good material for an episode of the West Wing – the fictional President Bartlet asked before a pardoning, “Won’t I get a reputation for being soft on turkeys?”)
However, as an attorney who represents pardon candidates before the Illinois Governor, I’m not fond of the message the turkey clemency sends to the public. It represents what critics point to as a potential problem with executive pardons – the possibility for the power to be applied arbitrarily. Out of the many turkeys sentenced to death each year, the White House selects one at random to be spared.
This is not how actual pardons are decided. The vast majority of granted pardons, whether on the state or federal level, are for individuals who served their debt to society and have since spent years rehabilitating themselves. By issuing a pardon, the executive office decides to grant them forgiveness for their act, and a second chance with a clean slate. In Illinois, pardon petitions are carefully considered first by the Prisoner Review Board, and then by Governor Quinn and his staff.
So this Thanksgiving, when the President pardons a turkey, just keep in mind the process works a little differently for our non-feathered citizens.
Yesterday, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn decided on 189 executive clemency petitions, granting 65 of them. This is Governor Quinn's first batch of decisions released since March. This batch came from dockets ranging from 2004-2012. As is typically the case, the considerable majority of the clemency decisions come in the form of pardon with authorization to expunge.
Including yesterday's decisions, Governor Quinn has now acted on 2,648 clemency petitions, granting 994. While Quinn has worked through most the petition backlog that built up under former governor Rod Blagojevich, there are still some left over as this latest batch indicates.
Congratulations to all of those who received pardons and will now be able to seek expungements! For most of you, the wait was long and difficult, but now you may finally move forward in your lives without the burden of a criminal record. We must also extend our gratitude to Governor Quinn for realizing the importance of giving a second chance to those who have earned it!
This weekend, Governor Pat Quinn signed into law bills aimed at helping those with a criminal record to restart their lives. As previously discussed, one of these new laws will increase a tax incentive for employers to hire ex-offenders.
However, the biggest change in the law for record clearing purposes is a further expansion of felony convictions eligible for sealing. Previously, the only felony convictions eligible for sealing were Class 4 level drug possession or prostitution unless special authorization was granted by the Illinois Prisoner Review Board. But under this new law, sealing eligibility will also include Class 3 and Class 4 level theft, retail theft, forgery, possession of burglary tools, and deceptive practices.
When the bill was originally introduced, it also included Class 2 level felony cases burglary, delivery of a controlled substance, and possession of a stolen motor vehicle. But, these offenses were later deleted as the bill was amended. If you were convicted of any of these felonies, your option for clearing it from your criminal record is still executive clemency (Governor’s pardon).
Today is the pardon petition deadline in Illinois, a quarterly deadline to submit petitions requesting executive clemency to the Illinois Prisoner Review Board. Apart from the many living individuals asking Governor Quinn for a second chance, this time there are some 19th century names in the batch as well.
After working with historians, Lieutenant Governor Sheila Simon has filed petitions on behalf of abolitionists convicted in the 1800s. Although slavery was abolished in Illinois in 1824 – well before the civil war – the law at the time still prohibited assisting fugitives from slave states. Simon’s petitioners include:
· Dr. Richard Eells, a participant in the Underground Railroad in Quincy who was caught in 1842 assisting Charley, a runaway slave from Missouri
· Samuel and Julius Willard, father-and-son abolitionists of the Jacksonville area who were convicted in 1843 of harboring a fugitive slave
Although most people seek a pardon for better job opportunities, there are plenty of individuals who would like a pardon primarily to clear their name. An executive pardon is an act of state-sanctioned forgiveness. It is apparently for this reason that Lt. Governor Simon has submitted these petitions. After more than 150 years, a pardon for these abolitionists from Governor Quinn would be an acknowledgement of an unjust policy, and a public gesture of gratitude for their efforts.
The 2014 Illinois Governor’s race is starting to ramp up, as former White House Chief of Staff Bill Daley threw his hat into the ring this week. If state Attorney General Lisa Madigan also decides to run, the incumbent Pat Quinn could end up with a fierce three-way battle in the Democratic primary. And that’s if Quinn decides to run for re-election, which he has not publicly announced yet. There are also several Republican candidates already in the race, including state Treasurer Dan Rutherford and state Senator Kirk Dillard.
Since Governor Quinn has proven himself to be one of the most pro-pardon governors in the country, I have recently heard from clients who are nervous about what will happen if a new governor takes over in 2014. Since 2009, Quinn has steadily worked his way through the backlog of clemency petitions left over from the Blagojevich administration. By regularly issuing decisions and granting those to individuals who have paid their debt to society and shown rehabilitation, he shows that he is respectfully reviewing the requests. Would Governor Daley, Madigan, Rutherford or Dillard act similarly? Can we point to anything in their experience that indicates a predilection to approve or deny pardons? Would any of them go the route of Blagojevich or Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker, and ignore the responsibility entirely?
The simple (but yes, unsatisfying) answer: we just don’t know. Granting pardons is one of the few powers that is entirely up to the discretion of the chief executive. Furthermore, on both the state and federal level, historically it has not been a partisan issue. You cannot predict how a leader will act on pardons based on his party affiliation.
Because of the uncertainty over who will take over the governor’s job, I have heard from a few individuals who are wondering if they should hurry and submit a pardon petition immediately, with the hopes it will come before Quinn while he’s still in office. My answer is that your best chance for receiving a pardon will be if you have shown years of productive rehabilitation and have taken steps to get your life back on track. If that’s not the case, it will be difficult to get your petition granted. The best time to submit a pardon is when your life is in the right place for it, not based on who is in office at the time. If you would like to discuss the merits of your particular case further, give me a call for a consultation.
In a pretty scathing article, the Associated Press recently reported that Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker has not issued any pardon decisions since he took office. Worse still, he hasn’t even appointed anyone to his pardon advisory board. He’s refusing to even give the appearance that pardon applications from people in his state are being respectfully reviewed.
Walker’s anti-pardon policy echoes what we recently saw here in Illinois. Our last Governor, Rod Blagojevich, failed to issue any pardon decisions during his six years in office. The comparison serves as a reminder that clemency is not a partisan issue—Walker is a Republican and Blagojevich is a Democrat. Fortunately, Blagojevich’s successor, Governor Pat Quinn, has been steadily working his way through the backlog of pardon petitions in Illinois. He’s granted hundreds of executive clemency petitions so far. This makes him one of the most proactive governors in the country to issue pardons, along with California Governor Jerry Brown and Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe.
I applaud the AP for calling the public’s attention to Walker’s failing. There are currently more than 1,400 pardon requests sitting on his desk. Many of these requests come from individuals who long ago served their time and are trying to be productive citizens. The AP interviewed one Wisconsin man who’s been offered a job contingent upon receiving a pardon. The man is currently having trouble making ends meet, and is upset at Walker’s stance. He told the AP:
“Is that the plan? For all of us to fail? To have people leeching off the state? For me to lose my house? [Walker's] slogan is we've got to move Wisconsin forward. Well, you know what, Mr. Walker? I need to move forward. I'm not asking for a handout. All I need is a signature from him. Do something. Don't just sit there."
Yesterday, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn released his first batch of clemency decisions for 2013. On this Easter weekend, 222 petitioners will be receiving their decisions, with 87 of them being granted. The decisions came on petitions that were filed between 2005 through 2012. The vast majority of executive clemency approvals come in the form of pardons with authorization to expunge their criminal record.
With this latest batch, Governor Quinn has now acted on 2,459 petitions since taking office, granting 929 and denying 1,530. It’s all part of an ongoing effort by the Governor to overcome the backlog of clemency petitions left over from former Governor Rod Blagojevich.
At the Bryant Chavez Law Office, we would like to congratulate those that get to start the next chapter of their lives with a clean slate! We would also like to commend Governor Quinn for taking action to help them start over. Unlike some other governors, Governor Quinn has proven that he is willing to grant a fresh start to those who have earned it.
Last week’s Boston Globe featured a good op-ed by Leon Neyfakh about the philosophy behind presidential pardons and a history of their use. The article was prompted by the White House’s recent announcement that President Obama had issued pardons to 17 ex-offenders. This brings the total number of pardons Obama has granted to 39. Neyfakh, like many in academic and legal circles, feels this number is far too low. He says: “At a moment when the incarceration rate in the United States is near an all-time high, and the experience of living and working with a felony conviction is growing ever more difficult, it’s worth asking whether the president ought to see the pardon power not just as an option but as a duty.”
Some historical pardons Neyfakh points out are:
· 1800: Thomas Jefferson pardoned individuals convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act, which he considered unconstitutional
· 1919: Woodrow Wilson pardoned 500 people convicted under liquor laws, to signal his opposition to Prohibition
· 1960s: John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson reduced the sentences of more than 200 drug offenders convicted under mandatory minimum sentences in the 1956 Narcotics and Control Act
In each of these cases, the president used his pardon power to send a clear policy message that a law was unjust. Each of the laws above was later repealed. Neyfakh comments that in his second term “President Obama could use [pardons] in a similarly principled way, highlighting whole categories of individuals whose lives have been ruined by policies he sees as unjust or unduly harsh—injecting urgency into, say, the national debate over mass incarceration or the disproportionate impact of drug laws on minorities.”
On the state level, we here in Illinois saw the pardon used in such a way not too long ago. In 2003, Governor George Ryan commuted the death sentences of everyone on or waiting to be sent to death row in Illinois. The blanket act affected 167 individuals, who were issued life sentences instead. Ryan saw it important to act to avoid any possibility for a mistaken execution. (13 wrongly convicted death row inmates had recently been exonerated.) Obama was an Illinois State Senator during this time and is no doubt familiar with these pardons. Only time will tell if Obama chooses to use his pardon power in a similar way before he leaves office.